Applying principles of interchangeability to your bill of materials
Aug 20, · Interchangeable parts, popularized in America when Eli Whitney used them to assemble muskets in the first years of the 19th century, allowed relatively unskilled workers . Jan 24, · Interchangeable parts are perhaps one of the greatest and least-discussed engineering inventions. These are parts that are designed to fit in any device of the same type, rather than being designed for one specific item, and they revolutionized the world of manufacturing.
Interchangeable partsidentical components that can be substituted one for another, particularly important in the history of manufacturing.
Mass productionwhich transformed the organization of work, came about by the development of the machine-tool industry by a series of 19th-century innovators. With precision equipment, large o of identical parts could be produced at low cost and with a small workforce.
See also American System of manufacture ; armoury practice ; automobile industry; factory ; Henry Ford ; Henry Leland. Interchangeable parts. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History. Home Technology Industry Interchangeable parts industrial engineering.
Print Cite what is a sumptuary law Cite. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some ibterchangeability.
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The principle of interchangeable parts, adapted to clock manufacturing by Eli Terry of Plymouth inrapidly became basic to all manufacturing. History at your fingertips. Sign whta here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address. By signing up, you agree to our Privacy Notice. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox.
Mar 13, · The term interchangeability is applicable for mass production of the components. where these interchangeable parts need to be equal in size. But it’s not that easy to maintain that much closeness of accuracy. So these variations should have some limits. Within these limits of dimensions, the components are produced in bulk. Interchangeable parts, identical components that can be substituted one for another, particularly important in the history of manufacturing. Mass production, which transformed the organization of work, came about by the development of the machine-tool industry by a series of 19th-century innovators. Interchangeable parts are parts and components that are identical for practical purposes. This may seem like an obvious idea now but it is considered one of the greatest innovations in history that is one of the defining characteristics of the first industrial revolution.
PDXpert PLM software simplifies bill of materials management by automatically displaying the currently-released item on an assembly. As new item revisions are released, PDXpert applies the basic rule of interchangeability to ensure the latest revision is always displayed.
We discuss the benefits of item interchangeability rules, as well as the alternatives if your bills of materials don't apply these common "form-fit-function" rules. A part is interchangeable with another part when a the relevant functional and physical properties are equivalent in performance, reliability and maintainability, and b it can be used without requiring special procedures such as selecting for fit or performance and without altering the part itself or any other part.
A part is often considered interchangeable with another when the form , fit and function are identical:. Practically speaking, if a new part can be intermingled in production inventory with previous iterations of that part without any negative effect, then the parts are interchangeable and the part number remains unchanged. Conversely, if you need to stock a new iteration of a part in a different inventory bin because it is not compatible with previous iterations or you simply want to track its usage because you're not sure of its effect , then it's not interchangeable and you must issue a new part number.
When you're considering interchangeability, it's important to emphasize that "the relevant functional and physical properties are equivalent".
The interchangeability decision should account for how the item is used in your specific application. For example, the particular shade of green on a wire's insulation may not be important when used deep inside a power supply, yet a precise match is essential when it's an appliance power cable.
Likewise, you may not care when a capacitor's height is revised from 5. A document is assigned a new revision identifier when its technical content changes 1. A document revision will not force the creation of a new part number for a currently-produced part if:.
However, if your document numbers are closely related to the parts they describe e. You can reduce the bills of materials that must be manually updated, and the change forms that must be processed, simply by assigning document numbers without regard to how the related parts are identified. PDXpert PLM software helps prevent part interchangeability problems while reducing the number of engineering change orders required to manage the product life cycle.
When you follow the standard interchangeability rules, then all interchangeable changes will be immediately reflected on every bill of materials upon release of the new item revision. You don't touch the parent assembly, just the child component.
Similarly, when a supplier part record's revision is changed but the previous part number is retained for example, the supplier datasheet is revised , the Source list on the consuming part will be updated without requiring an explicit Engineering Change Notice.
Unlike some product lifecycle management software that draws firm lines between internal home parts and supply chain partner parts, PDXpert PLM software treats partner parts as peers to home parts. Therefore, any interchangeable home or partner part can be a source for any other. This allows you to easily consume existing obsolete stock or merge part numbering systems. Contact us if you'd like to discuss how the general concepts in this note may be applied to your situation. We'd be happy to address other PLM software good practices — ask us!
Applying principles of interchangeability to your bill of materials PDXpert PLM software simplifies bill of materials management by automatically displaying the currently-released item on an assembly. Part interchangeability definition A part is interchangeable with another part when a the relevant functional and physical properties are equivalent in performance, reliability and maintainability, and b it can be used without requiring special procedures such as selecting for fit or performance and without altering the part itself or any other part.
A part is often considered interchangeable with another when the form , fit and function are identical: Form The unique and relevant physical characteristics shape, size, mass that characterize a part for a particular use.
Fit The ability of a part to physically mate with, interconnect to, or become integrated with another part. Function The action that a part is expected to perform in fulfilling its purpose.
Document revisions and new document numbers A document is assigned a new revision identifier when its technical content changes 1.
A document revision will not force the creation of a new part number for a currently-produced part if: The document describes an existing part, and the part remains interchangeable before and after the document's contents change. The document adds a new part to an existing series of similar parts. For example, a supplier specification lists all available 0. Applying good interchangeability practices to auto-update the product structure PDXpert PLM software helps prevent part interchangeability problems while reducing the number of engineering change orders required to manage the product life cycle.
Notes The document or part record revision should not be used to indicate a non-technical change, such as bumping the revision simply to indicate the change from "Prototype" to "Production". Although this is an old engineering practice, it can pose technical risks, unnecessary delays and ambiguities. Part number system design Part 1: Part numbering best practice Part 2: Intelligent part number schemes Do parts have revisions? Change process design.