What is analytical psychology? Analytical psychology approaches psychotherapy in the tradition of C. G. Jung. It is distinguished by a focus on the role of symbolic experiences in human life, taking a prospective approach to the issues presented in therapy. analytic psychology (analytical psychology) the system of psychology founded by Carl Gustav Jung, based on the concepts of the collective unconscious and the complex. clinical psychology the use of psychologic knowledge and techniques in the treatment of persons with emotional difficulties.
Analytic psychologythe psychoanalytic method of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung analytifal he distinguished it from that of Sigmund Freud.
He classified people into introverted and extraverted types and further distinguished them according to four primary functions of the mind—thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition—one or more of which Jung believed predominates in any how to get your car stolen person.
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Alternative Title: analytical psychotherapy. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Analytic psychologydevised by Carl Jung, placed less emphasis on free association and more on the interpretation of dreams and fantasies. Special importance was given analytucal the collective unconscious, a reservoir of shared unconscious wisdom and ancestral experience that entered consciousness only in symbolic form….
Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the extraverted and the introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious. His work has been influential in psychiatry and in the study of religion,….
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Analytic psychology, the psychoanalytic method of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung as he distinguished it from that of Sigmund Freud. Jung attached less importance than did Freud to the role of sexuality in the neuroses and stressed the analysis of patients’ immediate conflicts as being more useful in understanding their problems than the uncovering of childhood conflicts. Analytical psychology approaches psychotherapy and depth analysis in the tradition established by the Swiss psychiatrist, C. G. Jung. As originally defined by Jung, it is distinguished by a focus on the role of symbolic and spiritual experiences in human life, and rests on Jung’s theory of archetypes and the existence of a deep psychic space or collective unconscious. Apr 07, · Psychology Definition of ANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY: introduced by Carl Jung, a cohesive system wherein the mind is viewed as a composite of philosophical values, primordial images and symbols, and an urge.
Analytical psychology German : Analytische Psychologie , sometimes translated as analytic psychology and referred to as Jungian analysis is a term coined by Carl Jung , a Swiss psychiatrist , to describe research into his new "empirical science" of the psyche.
It was designed to distinguish it from Freud's psychoanalytic theories as their seven-year collaboration on psychoanalysis was drawing to an end between and The history of analytical psychology is intimately linked with the biography of Jung. It was initially a theory concerning psychological complexes until Jung, upon breaking with Sigmund Freud , turned it into a generalised method of investigating archetypes and the unconscious , as well as into a specialised psychotherapy. Analytical psychology, or "complex psychology", from the German : Komplexe Psychologie , is the foundation of many developments in the study and practice of Psychology as of other disciplines.
The followers of Jung are many, and some of them are members of national societies in diverse countries around the world. Jung's propositions have given rise to a rich and multidisciplinary literature in numerous languages.
Among widely used concepts owed specifically to Analytical psychology are: anima and animus , archetypes , the collective unconscious , complexes , extraversion and introversion , individuation , the Self , the shadow and synchronicity.
The approximately "three schools" of post-Jungian analytical psychology that are current, the classical , archetypal and developmental , can be said to correspond to the developing yet overlapping aspects of Jung's lifelong explorations, even if he expressly did not want to start a school of "Jungians".
The findings of Jungian analysis and the application of analytical psychology to contemporary preoccupations such as social and family relationships,  dreams and nightmares, work—life balance ,  architecture and urban planning,  politics and economics, conflict and warfare,  and climate change are illustrated in a growing number of publications and films.
Other honours followed later. Although they began corresponding a year earlier, in Jung travelled to meet Sigmund Freud in Vienna , Austria. At that stage, Jung, aged thirty-two, had a much greater international renown than the forty-nine year old neurologist.
In , they founded the International Psychoanalytical Association , of which Jung was the first president. Unlike most modern psychologists, Jung did not believe in restricting himself to the scientific method as a means to understanding the human psyche.
He saw dreams, myths, coincidence and folklore as empirical evidence to further understanding and meaning. So although the unconscious cannot be studied by using direct methods, it acts as a useful working hypothesis, according to Jung.
It was the publication of a book by Jung which provoked the break with psychoanalysis and led to the founding of analytical psychology. At this, Freud muttered about "heresy". Freud mentioned to Ernest Jones that it was on page of the original German edition, that Jung, according to him, had "lost his way". The sanction was immediate: Jung was officially banned from the Vienna psychoanalytic circle from August From that date the psychoanalytic movement split into two obediences, with Freud's partisans on one side, Karl Abraham being delegated to write a critical notice about Jung,  and with Ernest Jones as defender of Freudian orthodoxy; while on the other side, were Jung's partisans, including Leonhard Seif, Franz Riklin , Johan van Ophuijsen and Alphonse Maeder.
Jung's innovative ideas with a new formulation of psychology and lack of contrition sealed the end of the Jung-Freud friendship in From then, the two scholars worked independently on personality development: Jung had already termed his approach analytical psychology , while the approach Freud had founded is referred to as the Psychoanalytic School , psychoanalytische Schule.
Jung's postulated unconscious was quite different from the model proposed by Freud, despite the great influence that the founder of psychoanalysis had had on him. In particular, tensions manifested between him and Freud because of various disagreements, including those concerning the nature of the libido.
While he accepted that libido was an important source for personal growth, unlike Freud, Jung did not consider that libido alone was responsible for the formation of the core personality. The overarching aim in life, according to Jungian psychology, is the fullest possible actualisation of the "Self" through individuation.
By bringing conscious awareness to bear on what is unconscious, such elements can be integrated with consciousness when they "surface". It is It is not I who create myself, rather I happen to myself'.
It follows that the aim of Jungian psychotherapy is to assist the individual to establish a healthy relationship with the unconscious so that it is neither excessively out of balance in relation to it, as in neurosis, a state that can result in depression , anxiety , and personality disorders or so flooded by it that it risks psychosis resulting in mental breakdown. One method Jung applied to his patients between and was active imagination , a way of encouraging them to give themselves over to a form of meditation to release apparently random images from the mind in order to bridge unconscious contents into awareness.
If adaptation is thwarted, the psychic energy stops flowing and becomes rigid. This process manifests in neurosis and psychosis.
Jung proposed that this occurs through maladaptation of one's internal realities to external ones. The principles of adaptation, projection, and compensation are central processes in Jung's view of psyche's attempts to adapt. Jung was an adept principally of the American philosopher William James , founder of pragmatism , whom he met during his trip to the United States in In his view psychologism was suspect.
Displacement into the conceptual deprives experience of its substance and the possibility of being simply named. Throughout his writings, Jung sees in empirical observation not only a precondition of an objective method but also respect for an ethical code which should guide the psychologist, as he stated in a letter to Joseph Goldbrunner:.
I consider it a moral obligation not to make assertions about things one cannot see or whose existence cannot be proved, and I consider it an abuse of epistemological power to do so regardless. These rules apply to all experimental science.
Other rules apply to metaphysics. I regard myself as answerable to the rules of experimental science. As a result nowhere in my work are there any metaphysical assertions nor - nota bene - any negations of a metaphysical nature. According to the Italo-French psychoanalyst Luigi Aurigemma, Jung's reasoning is also marked by Immanuel Kant , and more generally by German rationalist philosophy. His lectures are evidence of his assimilation of Kantian thought, especially the Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason.
Whereas his typology is profoundly dependent on Carl Spitteler. As a trained psychiatrist, Jung had a grounding in the state of science in his day. He regularly refers to the experimental psychology of Wilhelm Wundt. Notwithstanding the great debt of analytical psychology to Sigmund Freud , Jung borrowed concepts from other theories of his time.
For instance, the expression " abaissement du niveau mental " comes directly from the French psychologist Pierre Janet whose courses Jung attended during his studies in France, during Jung had always acknowledged how much Janet had influenced his career. Finally, his use of the English expression, "pattern of behaviour", which is synonymous with the term archetype , is drawn from British studies in ethology. The principal contribution to analytical psychology, nevertheless, remains that of Freud's psychoanalysis , from which Jung took a number of concepts, especially the method of inquiring into the unconscious through free association.
Jung affirms also Freud's contribution to our knowledge of the psyche as being, without doubt, of the highest importance. It reveals penetrating information about the dark corners of the soul and of the human personality, which is of the same order as Nietzsche's On the Genealogy of Morality In this context, Freud was, according to Jung, one of the great cultural critics of the XIXth century. Jungian Analysis, as is psychoanalysis, is a method to access, experience and integrate unconscious material into awareness.
It is a search for the meaning of behaviours, feelings and events. Many are the channels to extend knowledge of the self: the analysis of dreams is one important avenue. Others may include expressing feelings about and through art, poetry or other expressions of creativity, the examination of conflicts and repeating patterns in a person's life. A comprehensive description of the process of dream interpretation is complex, in that it is highly specific to the person who undertakes it.
Most succinctly it relies on the associations which the particular dream symbols suggest to the dreamer, which at times may be deemed "archetypal" in so far as they are supposed common to many people throughout history. Examples could be a hero, an old man or woman, situations of pursuit, flying or falling. Whereas Freudian psychoanalysis relies entirely on the development of the transference in the analysand the person under treatment to the analyst, Jung initially used the transference and later concentrated more on a dialectical and didactic approach to the symbolic and archetypal material presented by the patient.
Moreover his attitude towards patients departed from what he had observed in Freud's method. Anthony Stevens has explained it thus:. In place of Freud's "surgical detachment", Jung demonstrated a more relaxed and warmer welcome in the consulting room. The "Zurich School" would reflect the approach Jung himself taught, while those influenced by Michael Fordham and associates in London, would be significantly closer to a Kleinian approach and therefore, concerned with analysis of the transference and countertransference as indicators of repressed material along with the attendant symbols and patterns.
Jung's preoccupation with dreams can be dated from One of the salient differences is the compensatory function they perform by reinstating psychic equilibrium in respect of judgments made during waking life: thus a man consumed by ambition and arrogance may, for example, dream about himself as small and vulnerable person.
According to Jung, this demonstrates that the man's attitude is excessively self-assured and thereby refuses to integrate the inferior aspects of his personality, which are denied by his defensive arrogance. Jung calls this a compensation mechanism , necessary for the maintenance of a healthy mental balance.
Shortly before his death in , he wrote:. In order to secure mental and even physiological stability, it is necessary that the conscious and unconscious should be integrated one with the other. This is so that they evolve in parallel.
Unconscious material is expressed in images through the deployment of symbolism which, in Jungian terms, means it has an affective role in that it can sometimes give rise to a numinous feeling, when associated with an archetypal force and an intellectual role.
Analytical psychology is recognised for its historical and geographical study of myths as a means to deconstruct, with the aid of symbols, the unconscious manifestations of the psyche. Myths are said to represent directly the elements and phenomena arising from the collective unconscious and though they may be subject to alteration in their detail through time, their significance remains similar.
While Jung relies predominantly on christian or on Western pagan mythology Ancient Greece and Rome , he holds that the unconscious is driven by mythologies derived from all cultures. He evinced an interest in Hinduism , in Zoroastrianism and Taoism , which all share fundamental images reflected in the psyche. Thus analytical psychology focusses on meaning, based on the hypothesis that human beings are potentially in constant touch with universal and symbolic aspects common to humankind.
Jung opens psychoanalysis to a dimension currently obscured by the prevailing scientism : spirituality. His contribution, though questionable in certain respects, remains unique. His explorations of the unconscious carried out both as a scientist and a poet, indicate that it is structured as a language but one which is in a mythical mode. Son apport, quoique contestable sur certains points, reste unique. In analytical psychology two distinct types of psychological process may be identified: that deriving from the individual, characterised as "personal", belonging to a subjective psyche, and that deriving from the collective, linked to the structure of an objective psyche, which may be termed "transpersonal".
Some of these processes are regarded as specifically linked to consciousness, such as the animus or anima, the persona or the shadow. Others pertain more to the collective sphere. Jung tended to personify the anima and animus as they are, according to him, always attached to a person and represent an aspect of his or her psyche.
Jung identified the archetypal anima as being the unconscious feminine component of men and the archetypal animus as the unconscious masculine component in women. You see, his ego is in relation to the unconscious, and the unconscious is personified by a female figure, the anima. But in the unconscious is also a masculine figure, the wise old man.
And that figure is in connection with the anima as her animus, because she is a woman. So, one could say the wise old man was in exactly the same position as the animus to a woman. Jung stated that the anima and animus act as guides to the unconscious unified Self, and that forming an awareness and a connection with the anima or animus is one of the most difficult and rewarding steps in psychological growth. Jung reported that he identified his anima as she spoke to him, as an inner voice, unexpectedly one day.