# What causes sunrise and sunset

The Colors of Sunset and Twilight

Here's what scientists say about "sunrise" and "sunset": The sun stays in its position at the center of our solar system. It doesn't rise and set. But it appears to rise and set because of the Earth's rotation on its axis. It makes one complete turn every 24 hours. It turns toward the east. Sunrise and sunset is caused by the earth rotating around it's axis, it makes one complete rotation within 24 hours (known as 1 day).

Zetetic Astronomyby 'Parallax' pseud. Samuel Birley Rowbotham[], at sacred-texts. ALTHOUGH the sun is at all times above the earth's surface, it appears in the morning to ascend from the north-east to the noonday position, and thence to descend and disappear, or set, what is the salary of a doctor per year the north-west.

This phenomenon arises from how to make a mens dress shirt operation of a simple and everywhere visible law of perspective. A flock of birds, when passing over a flat or marshy country, always appears to descend is it what sort of temple is borobudur and if the flock is extensive, the first bird appears lower or nearer to the horizon than the last, although they are at the same actual altitude above the earth immediately beneath them.

When a balloon sails away from an observer, without increasing or decreasing its altitude, it appears to gradually approach the horizon. In a long row of lamps, the second--supposing the observer to stand at the beginning of sunst serieswill appear lower than the first; the third lower than the. Let A, B, represent the altitude throughout of a long row of lamps, standing on the horizontal ground E, D; and C, H, the line of sight of an observer at C.

The ordinary principles of perspective will cause an apparent rising of the ground E, D, to the eye-line C, H, meeting it at H; and an apparent descent of each subsequent lamp, from A, to H, towards the same eye-line, also meeting at H. The point H, is the horizon, or the true "vanishing point," at which the last visible lamp, although it has really the altitude D, B, will disappear. Bearing in mind the above phenomena it will easily be seen how the sun, although always above and parallel to the earth's surface, must appear to ascend from the morning horizon to the noonday or meridian position; and thence sunris descend to the evening horizon.

An observer at 0, looking to the east, will first see the sun in the morning. At nine o'clock, the sun will have the apparent position, 1, caues appearing to ascend the line H, 1, S; the point S, being the meridian or noonday position. From S, the sun will be seen to gradually wwhat the line S, 2, H, until he reaches the horizon, H, and entering the "vanishing point," disappears, to an observer in England, in the west, beyond the continent of North America, as in the morning he is seen to rise from the direction of Northern Asia.

An excellent illustration of this "rising" and "setting" of the sun may be seen in a long tunnel, as shown in diagram, fig. The top of the tunnel. A very striking illustration of the convergence of the top and bottom, as well as the sides, of a long tunnel, has been observed in that of Mont Cenis. Its vivid light contrasted strangely with the red glare of the lamps.

Its brightness increased as the horses dashed on the way. In a short time its proportions were more clearly defined, and its volume sjnset. The illusion was quickly dispelled as we got over some kilometres. This soft white light is the extremity of the gallery. We have seen that "sunrise" and "sunset" are phenomena dependent entirely upon the fact that horizontal lines, parallel to each other, appear to approach or converge in the distance.

The surface of the earth being horizontal, and the line usnrise sight of the observer and the sun's path being over and parallel with it, the rising and setting of the moving sun over the immovable earth are simply phenomena arising necessarily from the laws of perspective.

Jul 18,  · The Sun is low on the horizon at sunrise and sunset. At these times of the day, sunlight has had to travel through more of the atmosphere to reach us. When light hits the atmosphere it is scattered, particularly when dust, smoke and other particles are in the air. This scattering affects the blue part of the light spectrum the most. Nov 06,  · Scattering also explains the colors of the sunrise and sunset, Ackerman says. “Because the sun is low on the horizon, sunlight passes through more air at sunset and sunrise than during the day, when the sun is higher in the sky. More atmosphere means more molecules to scatter the violet and blue light away from your eyes. Sunrise and sunset times in your city Due to Rayleigh scattering, most of the light of shorter wavelengths – the blue, violet, and green – are scattered away multiple times, leaving only lights of longer wavelength – the red, orange, and yellow – to pass straight through to the observer.

If there was a top 10 of weather-related photos that are tweeted, I am guessing that sunrises are going to be on that list. People always seem fascinated with the peacefulness and beauty of them. And frankly, they are photogenic. I see so many sunrise pictures that I have become immune to them, but one this morning by our family friend Amanda Rhoton Stokes inspired me. Stokes shared the picture below in social media. The picture from Jekyll Island, Georgia resonated because my family just spent a few days in that area earlier in the week.

It also inspired me to share 4 science facts about sunrise that you may have known or not. Photo: Amanda Rhoton Stokes. Why does the sun rise in the east? For some people this may be the "duh" question of the article but perhaps not. I think people clearly know that the sun rises in the east but may not actually think about why. It is simply related to the rotation of the Earth. The Earth is spinning on its axis, and it spins toward the east.

At the equator, the earth is spinning at a rate of roughly miles per hour mph. Because the Earth's equatorial bulging, it is really more of an oblate spheriod than a sphere. This also affects the rotation rate, which decreases by the cosine of latitude. For example, if you live at a latitude of 45 degrees, the cosine of that value is. If you multiply. Early scholars thought that Earth was the center of the cosmos because as they peered into the night sky everything seemed to move about the Earth.

In the 16th century, Copernicus pointed out that Earth orbited around the sun it was helio-centric and spun on an axis. Though the Earth is spinning, we do not feel it. If you've ever flown on a large plane, it is hard to tell that you are moving.

However in the case of the plane or the Earth, if it stopped suddenly we would feel that. Since we are rotating with the Earth at a constant rate, the rotation is not felt. Scientists think that this abrupt change was caused by loss of ice mass at the poles. Why does a sunrise sky have its orange-reddish color?

To answer this question, we have to define "scattering. This is called scattering. The two most common to meteorological processes are Rayleigh scattering particle is small relative to the wavelength of light and Mie scattering spherical particle is about the same size as the wavelenth scattering.

When the sun is low on the horizon during sunrises and sunsets, the sunlight travels through more of the atmosphere. Shorter wavelength colors blues and violets get scattered out. This leaves more of the longer wavelength colors like yellow, orange, and red. This is why sunrises often take on such colors. When the sun is higher in the sky, smaller particles Rayleigh scatter much of the blue wavelength, which is why the sky appears blue.

The human eye is more sensitive to blue than violet otherwise our characteristic blue sky might be violet. Doesn't dust or pollution brighten the colors? The notion that dust and air pollution brighten sunrises and sunsets is a myth.

In fact, they have the opposite effect. As Dr. Stephen Corfidi writes in an excellent essay on this topic,. Typical pollution droplets such as those found in urban smog or summertime haze are on the order of.

Particles this large are not good Rayleigh scatterers as they are comparable in size to the wavelength of visible light Mie scatterers if spherical. If the particles are of uniform size, they might impart a reddish or bluish cast to the sky, or result in an odd-colored sun or moon it is this effect that accounts for the infrequent observation of "blue suns" or "blue moons" near erupting volcanoes.

Because pollution aerosols normally exist in a wide range of sizes, however, the overall scattering they produce is not strongly wavelength-dependent. As a result, hazy daytime skies, instead of being bright blue, appear grayish or even white. Similarly, the vibrant oranges and reds of "clean" sunsets give way to pale yellows and pinks when dust and haze fill the air. Corfidi also points out that pollutants also enhance light modification at low sun angles.

This causes a reduction in the total light reaching our eyes and the overall brilliance of the sunrise. Do clouds hurt sunrise or sunset views? According to Corfidi's essay, some clouds are preferable for the best views. I think Amanda's picture above confirms that too. He writes. Clouds catch the last red-orange rays of the setting sun and the first light of the dawn like a theatre screen, and reflect this light to the ground.

The best sunrises and sunsets seem to be associated with middle to high clouds rather than lower level clouds. Higher clouds receive sunlight that has not been altered by attenuation at lower levels. If you have a satellite dish for TV service as I do, attenuation is what happens when you lose the signal during rain.

That is enough for now. I woke up with no intention of writing anything today, but Amanda' picture was a bright way to start things off. Prior to UGA, Dr. Shepherd is frequently sought as an expert on weather and climate by major media outlets, the White House, and Congress. He has over 80 peer-reviewed scholarly publications and numerous editorials. Shepherd received his B. This is a BETA experience.

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Jul 18, , am EDT. Jul 17, , am EDT. Edit Story. May 28, , am EDT. Marshall Shepherd Senior Contributor. Amanda Rhoton Stokes. Changes in Earth's spin axis. Sun at low horizon. Source: S. Corfidi and NOAA. NOAA and S. Follow me on Twitter. Check out my website. Marshall Shepherd. Read Less.

## 3 Comment on post “What causes sunrise and sunset”

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3. JoJohn:

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