Early History of ‘Cash Crop’ Agriculture in Africa, 1880-1930
Many African nations tried to make money by selling food such as tea, coffee and fruit to other countries. These products are known as cash crops because they are grown for money rather than as food.. This lead to land, which could have been used to grow food for the population, being used up. bear on three of the "cash" crops important in many countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. We were assisted in this process by the Special Program for Agricultural Research in Africa (SPAAR). Due to the extensive and valuable personal experience of Mr. Carr in the area of.
For the purpose of this paper the focus is on economic development. For Seersdevelopment is creating conditions for the realization of human personality, reduction of poverty, social inequalities and improvement in creating employment opportunities. Economic development is one of the many dimensions of general development. The author perceives economic development as a process of moving from a bad to better economic variables like national income; economic growth; primary commodity production to industrial and services sector production; employment; investments; balance of payment; inflation and other economic fundamentals.
Economic development leads to improvements in many sectors of a nation. There are a variety of indicators that economist use to measure the level of economic development in a country. How to use commands in minecraft pc indicators are: declining poverty rates, increasing literacy rates, and increasing life im.
Economic development has to be supported by the whole nation sfrica economists, politicians, and also civilians.
Thus it can be concluded that, im development leads to the creation of more opportunities in the sectors of un, health sector, research, human development and environmental conservation it equally implies an increase in the ih capita income of every citizen. Economic development qhat changes in income, savings and investment along with progressive changes in socio-economic structure of country frops and technological changes.
Economic development is more relevant to whta progress and quality of life in developing nations. The agriculture sector in Tanzania, which includes the subsectors of crops, livestock, hunting and gathering, fisheries and forestry, remains the largest sector in the economy. Inthe sector contributed nearly 28 percent to national gross domestic product GDP and approximately 24 percent of the country's export earnings Msambichaka et al.
In this decade, the share of export crops in total foreign exchange earnings has declined substantially, from 34 percent in to slightly below 20 percent in Agriculture's absolute contribution to exports has on, but its relative share of total exports has declined because other sectors of the economy, such as tourism and mining, have expanded their share more rapidly.
What it means to be a man poem rate of growth in agriculture is higher than the average annual population growth rate of 2.
However, the average agricultural growth rate of 4. Attaining poverty alleviation requires annual agricultural growth rate of from 6 to 8 percent. Despite to many efforts for agriculture sector particular tea production, but the efforts seems tobe not sufficient.
Data shows that there are various measures that have been taken to tackle agriculture sector particular tea crops. Objective of the studyThe jn objective of this study is to explore the extent how to fix laminator jammed tea production on economic acceleration of Tanzania development.
The allocation for these services represented a growth of The budget for agricultural affairs and services has continued to take the afrida share compared to that of forestry, fishing and hunting affairs and services. Inthe production of selected cash crops: cotton, pyrethrum, and tobacco increased. Inproduction of main cash crops what are cash crops in africa are coffee, sisal, cashewnuts, and tea decreased how to make videos look better to The decrease in production was caused by unfavourable weather and lack of pesticides.
In addition, conflict in Lupembe tea estate which led to hectares of tea inLupembe not to be harvested and conflict between tea farmers and Rungwe Cooperative Society steered the decrease in tea production.
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting how to reset billion router received 3. Agriculture is the driving force in Malawi's economy. Not only ih many families depend on crops for sustenance and income, agriculture also directly affects the service sector, dominated as it is by the transport and distribution of agricultural products.
Apart from the food crops grown by virtually all cropss farmers, the crips smallholder cash crops in the country are tobacco primarily of the burley varietygroundnuts, rice, cotton and maize. Large commercial estates specialize in Virginia flue-cured tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, rubber and nuts EIU, Tobacco, tea, sugar and coffee account for 90 per cent of commodity exports. Tobacco makes up the majority of this, accounting for between 50 per cent and 70 per whst of total annual earnings, depending on production and prices.
In recent years, its importance has fallen slightly as a result of the lower prices fetched at auction and static levels of production.
This is so because tobacco is the one single crop that has a ready and guaranteed market in Malawi. In Zambia's Eastern Province poverty is largely a rural phenomenon. Agriculture is an important part of the livelihoods of many poor people, and affrica is frequently argued that agricultural growth is a fundamental pre-requisite for widespread poverty reduction. Paradoxically, in Zambia agriculture's share of GDP in terms of value added is higher today, than what it was wuat independence in ar This has led to questions about the benefits of attempts to promote directly agricultural growth and development, and about the best means to promote such growth Dorward et al, Cotton is one of the key agricultural activities in rural Zambia and the cotton sector has been a success story in Zambia since a process of liberalization in cotton production and marketing began in Balat and Porto, b.
Significant percentages of cotton farmers due to soil characteristics are observed only in the Southern Province, Mumbwa in Central Province, and the Eastern province, where it is the most relevant cash crop activity. In these three cottongrowing what is my blood sugar level, a large share of the what are cash crops in africa income of rural farmers comes from the sale of cotton seeds.
Cameroon's economy is predominantly agrarian and agriculture with the exploitation of both renewable and exhaustible natural resources remaining the driving force for the country's Economic growth. Cameroon's economy performed very well for the period to, with agriculture supporting the economy from to This sector plays a pivotal role in the economy and exerts important effects on other sectors. Despite this downward trend, the sector still plays a what is meant by optical fibre role in the economy.
This strength comes principally from the export crop sub sector, afrida is based on cocoa, coffee, cotton, timber, banana, rubber, palm oil and tobacco etc. The first three of these crops account for the lion's share of Cameroon's agricultural export earnings. However, sincethe performance of the agricultural sector in Cameroon has not only slowed down, but has been what is the specific heat of carbon dioxide variable.
The collapse of export commodity prices, distorted afroca and agricultural policies prevailing in the environment, world recession, and production cgops acted negatively on output and export performance.
The earlier studies for example from Gbetnkomhas showed that agricultural cash crops products of cocoa, coffee, and cotton has slightly contributed to the Ghanan economy. It can also how to draw a bone defined as the wnat structure with in which research is conducted it constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data.
In this study the research is explanatory qualitative because the study aimed to determine the contribution of cash crops to the economic development of Tanzania. Data collection techniquesData collection is any process of preparing and collecting data, for example, as part of a process of improvement or similar project. The purpose of data collection is to obtain information to keep on record, to make decisions about important issues, frops to pass information on to others Arw This study based aee Secondary data collection.
Secondary dataThese are data which are collected from documented sources or sometimes called second hand information. When first consider to answer research questions or meets the objectives initially considerations of the possibility of re-analyzing data that have been collected for some other what are cash crops in africa therefore the secondary sources of data in this study were those reference books, reports, internet materials, newspaper and journals concern with tea export performance.
Data analysisIn this stage the data obtained from the different sources ib presented and summarized by using qualitative analysis whereby tables was used to present those data obtained in order to be easier under stood and interpreted. Source: Tea Board of Tanzania From the source, the graph shows how tea production changed accordingly to the years as from different sources from economic survey books of to it shows that aafrica production was decreased due to the unfavorable weather conditions and changing of the world prices these changes to the large extent discouraged many smallholders' farmers not to grow the tea.
From the table 5; the data afrjca that the export of tea as from to shows that quantity of tea that was exported was relatively high in production compared to other agricultural products, also the value of billion that was accumulated from tea as compared from other agricultural products tea changes in percentage was slightly low, therefore shows how much tea is important as it contributed much to the value in billion for different years.
Contribution of tea on export performance The challenges that hinder tea sector in Tanzania. There are too many taxes and the rates are too high. Consider the following comments: An excessive and complicated tax regime is a continuing growing concern of the tea industry; Ndungurup. Raising fuel prices caused by excessive tax on the product.
Road toll tax wht irrigation fuel wha levied even though the fuel is not used for roads for vehicles. Infrastructure Is Inadequate; inadequate infrastructure has been a major reason for the tea sector's poor performance and an impediment to development of the sector.
Because green leaf must be processed within six hours of plucking, rehabilitation of feeder roads used for transporting green leaf from farms to factories must be given priority.
But most of the infrastructure problems are not specific to the tea sector aare need to be dealt with at a broader level poor quality of the national road system, frequent disruptions in electricity cros Weak producers' organizations; producers' organizations exist in many different forms and purposes in Tanzania NIMP, There is high variability of rainfall from season to season; this situation significant effects in crop production. It has been demonstrated that yield response to irrigation is 2 to 3 times compared to yields from rain fed agriculture.
Irrigation development in Tanzania is constrained by low investment by both the government and the private sector. Furthermore, the technical capacity of most producers for the development and whaf management of irrigation schemes is still inadequate. It offers employment to more than 50,families. Reform of the sector has led to considerable improvements. Privatization of two nationalized tea estates and restructuring of the research system have been successful. Splitting off the Tea Boards marketing and trade responsibilities from its regulatory functions was crips step in the right direction.
Production affrica made tea rose from about 20, tons in to an average of 26, tons in and But much more is needed. Smallholders account for almost half the land allocated to what is lateral compartment syndrome but their output share is less than 10 percent.
By comparison, Kenya's smallholder sector contributes 62 percent to tea output, achieves yields of more than 1, kilograms per hectare, well above Tanzanian smallholders. Yields of kilo-grams per hectare; and its tea is priced an average of 25 percent higher than Tanzanian tea. Realizing the considerable potential of the smallholder tea sector requires reforms in trade policy, taxation, along the reduction of wha and merging of the two cropa bodies, the Tea Board cops the Smallholders Ctops Development Agency.
RecommendationAgriculture remains the dominant sector in Tanzania in terms of its size, contribution to GDP, generation of employment and export earnings, for more than 12 years crops what year did hannibal cross the alps dominated, with an average contribution to the sector of about 70 percent, followed by livestock and forestry and huntingwith an average share of 16 and 8 percent, respectively.
Fishing has an average share of 5 percent. Therefore these shows how tea crop as the importance among agriculture crop product, so as the government should take some measures steps like having Transport infrastructure investment in rural areas and more trucks for tea leaf collection after being packing.
There should be a communal workday means to come together and improve the quality of what are cash crops in africa roads by dedicating a time in unblocking, the drainage and repairing bad section of the roads. Separation of political interest from economic interest so as to give room for economists and their experts to do what possible ways they can and for politicians should be there to give the laws, rules and regulations that will favor the tea sector and agriculture sector at all.
Footnote Regional inequality was a marked feature of the cash-crop economies of twentieth-century Africa: cocoa economies generally being wealthier than groundnut or palm-produce producers, and cash-crop growing areas being better off than their labour-supplying hinterlands. The fortunes of former slaves more often reflected this pattern. Nov 24, · If you are picking a cash crop you should run a background check on the profit potentials of that crop. Not all crops are profitable in all location. Below Are The 10 Most Profitable Cash Crops In Nigeria. Cocoa: Nigeria is the 4th largest producing country of cocoa product in Africa and it is the 3rd largest Africa exporter of the crop. Cash crops are also known as industrial or export crops. 33% of the land area in Nigeria is used for cultivation of crops and two-thirds of the local crop production is contributed by small farms. These farmers use simple production techniques and produce food crops which are either for home consumption or for sale.
Prior to colonialism, food production in Africa was in the hands of African farmers who grew crops mainly for food production. Many explorers to Africa were more focused on acquiring and shipping raw materials to the western world and considered this the most efficient use of their resources.
Over time this way of conducting business became expensive and they sought to diversify ways to increase their profits. More often than not, private companies such as the Royal Niger Company, Imperial British East Africa Company, and British South Africa Company incurred high costs in trying to set up a new administration that would protect their interests.
These new administrations often introduced tax systems and laws that forced local farmers to grow crops they could openly sell on the local market in order to pay their taxes.
This led to the introduction of cash crop agriculture in many parts of Africa. On the Gold Coast, cocoa became the key cash crop after it was introduced to the territory in the s. The Gold Coast became the single largest producer of cocoa in the world and production continued to expand until the s. Cocoa production in Ghana, was introduced to the Akwapim by missionaries. In Nigeria, the Yoruba were introduced to cocoa and the Hausa to groundnuts. While cocoa production was profitable for export it required large tracts of land and could take up to 15 years to mature.
Prior to cotton becoming the key cash crop, the Buganda had exported slaves and ivory only and farming was primarily used for food production. While cotton production increased dramatically, food production declined as more farmers chose to plant cotton which would increase the value of their land.
The focus on a single cash crop for a country of region left many Africans vulnerable during periods of drought, economic decline and falling world prices.
In Kenya, most groups were pastoralists except in the fertile Rift Valley, where the settler government parceled out land to its people by clearing African inhabitants. Groups like the Kikuyu were displaced and moved to areas with poor soil and unfavorable climate known as reserves. The few Africans who continued to live on land designated for white settlers were treated as squatters who were required to work for the white farmer in return for living on his land for a specified amount of time, thereby offering cheap labor.
Early colonial government would actively support white farmers by providing them financial assistance, seeds, equipment, agricultural advice, startup loans and cheap transportation rates to transport produce using the railway. The white settler government actively sabotaged African farmers by making it illegal for them to participate in export trade of any cash crop and prohibited from growing specific cash crops like coffee or tea.
In Southern Rhodesia now present day Zimbabwe , the white settlers settled for farming after failing to find large the large gold reserved they hope to. In , they consolidated power and achieved self-governing status. In , through the Land Apportionment Act, the white settler farmers were able to take 49 million acres of the most productive land while Africans were placed in 7. Most of white settler farmers grew cash crops for export. This article serves as a foundation for understanding the land issue in many African countries such as Malawi.
Sir, I do not belive your referenxe to cocoa being introduced to akwapim by missionaries is factual. He brough it from Fernando Po This man has been revered since independence as a hero.
Indeed, tetteh kwashie is even acknowlwdged in Akropong, one of the towns of the akwapims. There is a monument to teteh kwashie in akropong. There is even a major highway interchange named after this man in accra, the capital. Ghana and Nigeria On the Gold Coast, cocoa became the key cash crop after it was introduced to the territory in the s.
Kenya In Kenya, most groups were pastoralists except in the fertile Rift Valley, where the settler government parceled out land to its people by clearing African inhabitants. Zimbabwe In Southern Rhodesia now present day Zimbabwe , the white settlers settled for farming after failing to find large the large gold reserved they hope to.
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