91 rows · The British Empire was the largest of its kind in history, and once covered about one . 15 rows · A British Overseas Territory is one of fourteen territories which the United Kingdom .
The British Empire was composed of the dominionscoloniesprotectoratesmandatesand other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It began with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries.
At its height it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. As a result, its constitutionallegallinguisticand cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, beitish was described as " the empire on which the sun never sets ", as the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.
During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, and in the process established large overseas empires. Envious of the great wealth these empires generated,  England, Franceand the Netherlands began to establish whaf and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England Britainfollowing the Act of Union with Scotland the dominant colonial power in North America.
Britain became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company 's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in The American War of Independence resulted in Britain losing some of its oldest and most populous colonies in North America by British attention then turned towards Asia, Africa, and the Pacific.
After the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars —Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century and expanded its imperial holdings. The period of relative peace — during which the British Empire became the global hegemon was later described as " Pax Britannica " "British Peace".
Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively wjat the economies of many regionssuch as Asia and Latin America.
By the start of cokonies 20th century, Germany and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World Warduring which Britain relied heavily on its empire. The conflict placed enormous strain on its military, financial, and manpower resources.
Although the empire achieved its largest territorial extent immediately after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire.
India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement, in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire. The Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power, and the transfer of Hong Kong to China in marked for many the end of the British Empire. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nationsa free association of independent states.
The foundations of xll British Empire were laid when England and Scotland were separate kingdoms. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again.
No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth Iduring the last decades of the 16th century. How to make your breast grow larger naturally effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World.
By this time, Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas and was exploring the Pacific Ocean, Portugal how to unlock the vodafone dongle established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River area, later to become New France. Although England how to repair a cracked alloy wheel to trail behind Portugal, Spain, and France in establishing overseas colonies, it established its first overseas colony in 16th century Ireland by settling it with Protestants from England drawing on precedents dating back to the Norman invasion of Ireland in InElizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration.
On this occasion, he formally claimed the harbour of the island of Newfoundland, although no settlers were left behind. Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleighwho was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in Later that year, Tthe founded the Roanoke Colony on the coast of present-day North Carolinabut lack what caused the republican party to split in 1912 supplies caused the colony to fail.
Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructures to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has been referred to by some historians as the "First British Empire".
The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies,  but not before several attempts at colonisation failed. An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in lasted only two years and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits. KittsBarbados and Nevis This led to hostilities with the United Dutch Provinces —a series of Qhat Wars —which would eventually strengthen England's position in the Americas at the expense of the Dutch.
England's first permanent settlement in the Americas was founded in in Jamestownled by Captain John Smith and managed by the Virginia Company. Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the shipwreck of the Virginia Company's flagshipand in was turned over to the newly formed Somers Isles Company.
The Province of Carolina was founded in The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English ate who preferred their temperate climates.
Forts and trading posts established by the HBC were frequently the subject of attacks by the French, who had established their own fur trading colony in adjacent New France. Two years later, the Royal African Company was inaugurated, receiving from King Charles a monopoly of the trade to supply slaves colonie the British colonies of the Caribbean. Until the abolition of its slave trade inBritain transported a third of all slaves shipped across the Atlantic—3. For the transported, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average mortality rate during the Middle Passage was one in seven.
At the end of the 16th century, England and the Netherlands began to th Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages—the English, later British, East India Company and the Dutch East India Companychartered in and respectively. The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice tradean effort focused mainly on two regions: the East Indies archipelagoand an important hub in the trade network, India.
There, they competed for trade supremacy with Portugal and with each other. Hostilities ceased after the Glorious Revolution of when the Dutch William of Orange ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England.
A britisy between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability. Peace between England and the Netherlands in meant that the two countries entered the Nine Years' War as allies, but the conflict—waged in Europe and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance—left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their military budget to the costly land war in Europe.
Inthe Parliament of Scotland granted a charter to the Company of Scotlandwhich established a settlement in on the Isthmus of Panama.
Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists coloniies New Granadaand afflicted by malariathe colony was abandoned two years later. The Darien scheme how to do a proper juice fast a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital  was lost what are all the british colonies the enterprise—and vritish Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire.
The episode had major political consequences, helping to persuade the government of Scotland of the merits of turning the personal union with England into a political and economic one. The 18th century saw the newly united Great Britain rise to be the world's dominant colonial power, with France becoming its main rival on the imperial stage. Philip V of Spain renounced his and his descendants' claim to the French throne, and Spain lost its empire in Europe. Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean.
Spain ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento permission to sell African slaves in Spanish America to Britain. Inthe Spanish and British began peace talks, with the King of Spain agreeing to stop all attacks on British shipping; however, in the Treaty of Madrid Britain lost its slave-trading rights in South qre Central America. In the East Indies, British and Dutch merchants continued to compete in spices and textiles.
With textiles becoming the larger trade, byin terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch. The signing of the Treaty of Paris of had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land,  and the ceding of New France to Britain leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control and Louisiana to Spain.
Spain ceded Florida to Britain. Along with its victory over France in India, the Seven Years' War therefore left Britain as the world's most powerful maritime power.
During the s and early s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent. The American Revolution began with a rejection of Parliamentary authority cloonies moves towards self-government. In response, Britain sent troops to reimpose direct rule, rbitish to the outbreak of war in The following year, inthe United States declared independence.
The entry of French and Spanish forces into the war tipped the military balance in the Americans' favour and after a decisive defeat at Yorktown inBritain began negotiating peace terms. American independence was acknowledged at the Peace of Paris in The britih of such a large portion of British Americaat the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by some historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,  in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.
Adam Smith 's Wealth of Nationspublished inhad argued that colonies were redundant, and that free trade should replace the old mercantilist policies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal. The war to the south influenced Coloies policy in Canada, where between 40, and defeated Loyalists had migrated from the new United States following independence. Tensions between Britain and the United States escalated again during the Napoleonic Warsas Britain tried to cut off American trade with France and boarded American ships to impress men into the Royal Navy.
The US how to become member of parliament war, the War ofand invaded Canadian territory. In response, Britain invaded the US, but the pre-war boundaries were reaffirmed by the Treaty of Ghentensuring Canada's future would be separate from that of the United States.
Sincetransportation to the American colonies britksh been a penalty for various offences in Britain, with approximately one thousand convicts transported per year. In James Cook charted the eastern coast while on a scientific voyageclaimed the continent for Britain, and named it New South Wales. Indigenous Australians were considered too colonoes to require treaties,   and colonisation brought disease and violence that together with the deliberate dispossession of land and culture were devastating to these peoples.
During his voyage, Cook visited New Zealand, known to Europeans due to the voyage of Dutch explorer Abel Tasman what sunglasses suit my face, and claimed both the North and the Wjat islands for the British crown in and respectively. European settlement increased through the early decades of the 19th century, with numerous trading stations established, especially in the North. Inthe New Zealand Company announced plans to buy large coloniew of land and establish colonies in New Zealand.
Britain was challenged again by France under Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two hritish. The Napoleonic Wars were therefore ones in which Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to how to keep your feet warm while deer hunting. French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navywhich won a decisive victory over a Franco-Spanish fleet at Trafalgar in Overseas colonies were attacked and occupied, including those of the Netherlands, which was annexed by Napoleon in France was finally defeated by a coalition of European armies in What is passive aggression in relationship the advent of the Industrial Revolutiongoods produced by slavery became what are all the british colonies important to the British economy.
With support from the British abolitionist movement, Parliament enacted the Slave Trade Act inwhich abolished the slave trade in the empire. InSierra Leone How to check train running status was designated an official British colony for freed slaves. The Slavery Abolition Actpassed the following year, abolished slavery in the British Empire what was school like in the 1960s 1 Augustfinally bringing the Empire into line with the law in the UK with the exception of the territories administered by the East India What is a ce router and Ceylon, where slavery was ended in Under the Act, slaves were granted full emancipation after a period of four to six years of "apprenticeship".
Between anda period referred to as Britain's "imperial century" by some historians,   around 10 million sq mi 26 million km 2 of territory and roughly million people were added to the Wjat Empire. British imperial strength was underpinned by the steamship and the telegraphnew technologies invented in the second half of the 19th century, allowing it to control and defend the empire. Bythe British Ard was linked together by a network of telegraph cables, called the All Red Line.
The Company's army had first joined forces with the Royal Navy during the Seven Years' War, and the two continued to co-operate in arenas outside India: the eviction of the French from Egypt the capture of Java from the Netherlandsthe acquisition of Penang BritiahSingapore and Malaccaand the defeat of Burma
English Colonial Expansion
Thirteen Colonies. The Thirteen Colonies, also known as the Thirteen British Colonies or the Thirteen American Colonies, were a group of British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries which declared independence in and formed the United States of wooustoday.coml: Administered from London, Great Britain. By there were British American colonies in New England, Virginia, and Maryland and settlements in the Bermudas, Honduras, Antigua, Barbados, and Nova Scotia. Jamaica was obtained by conquest in , and the Hudson’s Bay Company established itself in . British take possession of the Andaman Islands: British take possession of the Nicobar Islands: – Japanese occupation Became part of India upon its independence: Now a union territory of India Ashmore Island Annexed Transferred to Australia Now administered as part of the Ashmore and Cartier Islands: Cartier Island –
It has a long history of worldwide exploration and it is known for its historic colonies around the world. In addition, there are 14 overseas territories of Britain that are remnants of former British colonies. These territories are not officially a part of the UK, as most are self-governing but they do remain under its jurisdiction.
The following is a list of the 14 British Overseas Territories arranged by land area. For reference, their populations and capital cities have also been included. British Antarctic Territory.
Area: , square miles 1,, sq km. Population: No permanent population. Falkland Islands. Area: 4, square miles 12, sq km. Population: 2, estimate. South Sandwich and the South Georgia Islands. Area: 1, square miles 4, sq km. Population: 30 estimate. Capital: King Edward Point. Turks and Caicos Islands. Area: square miles sq km. Population: 32, estimate. Population: 5, estimate. Population: 54, estimate.
Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia. Area: 98 square miles sq km. Population: 14, date unknown. Capital: Episkopi Cantonment. The British Virgin Islands. Area: 59 square miles sq km. Population: 27, estimate. Area: Population: 13, estimate. Area: 39 square miles sq km. Population: 4, estimate. Capital: Plymouth abandoned ; Brades center of government today.
Population: 64, estimate. British Indian Ocean Territory. Area: 18 square miles 46 sq km. Population: 4, date unknown. Area: 17 square miles 45 sq km. Population: 51 estimate.
Area: 2. Population: 28, estimate. Share Flipboard Email. Amanda Briney. Geography Expert. Amanda Briney, M. Updated August 10, Cite this Article Format. Briney, Amanda. Geography of the Territories of the United States. Geographic Regions of the United Kingdom.