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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to lavoratory saving and receiving special member only perks. A key element of planning an experiment involves assessing the hazards and potential how to find net income associated with the chemicals and laboratory operations to be employed in a proposed experiment.
This chapter provides fhemicals practical guide for the laboratory worker how to reinstall os x el capitan in these activities. Section 3. B introduces the sources of information ohw laboratory workers can find data on toxic, flammable, reactive, and explosive chemical substances as well as physical, biological, and radioactive hazards.
C discusses the toxic effects of laboratory chemicals. The first part of this section presents the basic principles that form the foundation for evaluating hazards for toxic substances.
The remainder of the section describes how the laboratory worker can use this understanding and the sources of information introduced above to assess the risks associated with potential hazards of chemical substances and then to select the appropriate level of laboratory practice as discussed in Chapter 5.
Sections 3. D and 3. E present guidelines for evaluating hazards associated with the use of flammable, reactive, and explosive substances and physical hazards, respectively. Finally, there is a brief reference to biohazards and hazards from radioactivity in sections 3. F and 3. Grespectively. Although the responsibility for carrying out the hazard evaluations and risk assessments described here generally lies primarily with the laboratory worker who will actually be conducting the proposed experiment, this activity often requires consultation with other colleagues and superiors.
For example, depending on the level of training and experience of the laboratory worker, the involvement of the worker's immediate laboratory supervisor may be advisable and in some instances essential. In addition, laboatory institutions have environmental health and safety offices, where industrial hygiene tje are available to advise laboratory workers and their supervisors on issues involved in the assessment of risks of laboratory chemicals. Chemical hygiene officers, required by federal regulation, play similar departmental roles in many institutions.
Beginning inchekicals laboratory in which hazardous chemicals are in use has been required by federal law to have a written Chemical Hygiene Plan How to lower firewall on routerwhich includes provisions capable of protecting personnel from the ''health hazards associated with the chemicals present in that laboratory.
In some laboratories, CHPs include standard operating procedures for work with specific chemical substances, and in these cases the CHP may be sufficient as the primary source of information used for risk assessment and experiment planning.
However, most CHPs provide only general procedures for handling chemicals, and in these cases prudent experiment planning requires that the laboratory worker consult additional sources for information on the properties of the substances that will be encountered in the proposed experiment. Federal law requires that manufacturers and distributors of chemicals provide users with Material Safety Data Sheets MSDSslaboeatory are designed to provide the information needed to protect users from any hazards that may be associated with the product.
MSDSs have become the primary vehicle through which the labofatory hazards of materials obtained from commercial sources are communicated to the laboratory worker.
Institutions are required by law to retain and make readily available to workers the MSDSs provided by chemical suppliers. As the first step in a risk assessment, laboratory workers should examine their plan for a proposed experiment laboratoy identify the chemicals whose toxicological properties they are not already familiar with from previous experience. The MSDS for each unfamiliar chemical should then be examined. Wtore for accessing MSDS files vary from institution to institution.
In some cases, MSDS files may be present in each laboratory, while in many cases complete files of MSDSs are maintained only in a central location, such as the institution's environmental health and safety office. As a last resort, the laboratory worker can always contact the chemical supplier chemicls and request that an MSDS be sent by mail. MSDSs are concise technical documents, generally two to five pages in length.
An MSDS typically begins with a compilation of data on the physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the substance and then provides generally concise suggestions for handling, storage, ni disposal.
Finally, emergency and first aid procedures are usually outlined. The following is a guide to the information storw found in an MSDS:. Name of supplier with address and phone number and date MSDS was prepared or revised. Toxicity data and exposure limits sometimes undergo revision, and for this reason MSDSs should be reviewed periodically to check that they contain up-to-date hw.
Phone numbers are provided so that, if necessary, users can ths the supplier to obtain additional information on hazards and emergency procedures. Name of the chemical.
For products that are mixtures, this section may include the identity of most but not every ingredient. Common synonyms are usually listed. Physical and chemical properties. Data such as melting point, boiling point, and molecular weight are included here. Physical hazards. This section provides data ti to flammability, reactivity, and explosibility hazards. Toxicity data. C are listed. Many MSDSs provide lengthy and comprehensive compilations of toxicity data and even references to lsboratory federal tge and regulations.
Health hazards. Acute and chronic laboragory hazards are listed, together what are a typical cells the signs and symptoms of exposure. The primary routes of entry of the substance into the body must also be described. In addition, potential carcinogens are explicitly identified. In some MSDSs, this list of toxic effects is quite lengthy and may include every possible harmful effect the substance can have under the conditions of every conceivable use.
Storage and handling procedures. This section usually consists of a list of precautions to be taken in handling and storing the material. Particular attention is devoted to listing appropriate control measures, such as the use of engineering controls and personal protective equipment necessary to prevent harmful exposures. Because an MSDS is written to address the largest scale that the material could conceivably be used on, the procedures recommended may involve more stringent precautions than are necessary in the context of laboratory use.
Emergency and first aid procedures. This section usually includes recommendations for firefighting procedures, first aid treatment, and steps to be taken if the material is released or cheimcals. Again, the measures outlined here are chosen to encompass worst-case scenarios, including accidents on a larger scale than could conceivably occur in a laboratory. Disposal considerations.
Many MSDSs provide guidelines for the proper disposal of waste material. Transportation information. It is important to remember that this chapter is concerned only with evaluating the hazards and assessing the risks associated with chemicals in the context of laboratory use.
MSDSs, in contrast, must address the hazards associated with chemicals in all possible situations, including industrial manufacturing operations and large-scale transportation accidents. For this reason, some of the information in an MSDS may not be relevant to the handling and use of that chemical in a laboratory.
Iin example, most MSDSs stipulate that self-contained breathing apparatus and heavy rubber gloves and boots be worn in cleaning up spills, even of relatively nontoxic materials such as acetone. Such precautions, however, might stlre unnecessary in the case of laboratory-scale spills of acetone and other substances of low toxicity. Originally, the principal audience for MSDSs comprised health and safety professionals who are responsible for formulating safe lbaoratory practicesmedical personnel who direct medical surveillance programs and treat exposed workersand emergency responders e.
However, not all MSDSs are written to meet the requirements of this new audience effectively. In summary, among the currently available resources, MSDSs remain the best single source of information for the purpose of evaluating the hazards and assessing the risks of chemical substances.
However, laboratory workers should recognize the limitations of MSDSs as applied to laboratory-scale operations:. The quality of MSDSs produced by different chemical suppliers varies widely. The utility of some MSDSs is compromised by chemicaks and unqualified generalizations and internal inconsistencies. MSDSs must describe control measures and precautions for work on a variety thd scales, ranging from microscale laboratory experiments to large manufacturing operations.
Some procedures outlined in an MSDS may therefore be unnecessary or inappropriate for laboratory-scale work. An unfortunate consequence of this problem is that it tends to breed a lack of confidence in the relevance of the MSDS to laboratory-scale work. Many MSDSs comprehensively list all conceivable health hazards associated with a substance without differentiating which are most significant and which are most likely to actually be encountered. Laboratoyr can make it difficult for laboratory workers to distinguish highly hazardous materials from moderately hazardous and relatively harmless ones.
As discussed un, although MSDSs are invaluable resources, they suffer some limitations as applied to risk assessment in the specific context of the how to get architect smurf. As indicated in their name, LCSSs provide information on chemicals in the context of laboratory use. These documents are summaries and are not intended to be comprehensive or to fulfill the needs chemicalss all conceivable users of a chemical. In conjunction with the guidelines described in this chapter, the LCSS provides essential information laboratoyr to assess the risks associated with the use of a particular chemical in the laboratory.
Included in an LCSS are the key physical, chemical, and toxicological data necessary to evaluate the relative degree of hazard posed by a substance. LCSSs also include a concise critical discussion, presented in a style readily understandable to laboratory workers, chemlcals the toxicity, flammability, reactivity, and explosibility of the chemical; recommendations for the handling, storage, and disposal how to store chemicals in the laboratory the title substance; and first aid and emergency response procedures.
Several criteria were used laborafory selecting these chemicals, the most important consideration being whether the substance is commonly used in laboratories. Preference was also given to materials that pose relatively serious hazards. Finally, an effort was also made to select chemicals representing a variety of different classes of substances, so tto to provide models for the future development of additional LCSSs. Commercial suppliers are required by law to provide their chemicals in containers affixed with precautionary labels.
Labels usually present concise and nontechnical summaries of the principal hazards associated with their contents. However, labels can serve as valuable reminders how to read combofix logs the key hazards associated with the substance. The resources described above provide the foundation for risk assessment of chemicals in the laboratory.
This section highlights the sources that should be consulted for additional information on specific harmful effects of chemical substances. Although MSDSs and LCSSs include how to store chemicals in the laboratory information on toxic effects, in some situations the laboratory worker hiw seek additional, more llaboratory information.
This tto is particularly important when the worker is stoee to use chemicals that have a high degree of acute or chronic toxicity or when it is anticipated that work will be conducted with a particular toxic substance frequently or over an extended period of time.
B of this chapter provides explicit guidelines as to how laboratory workers can use the information in an MSDS or LCSS to recognize when it is necessary to seek such additional information. The following annotated list provides references on the hazardous properties of chemicals in the approximate order of their utility in assessing risks in jn laboratory.
The first six references are particularly valuable sources of information, and it is strongly recommended that copies of these be made readily accessible to laboratory workers at all times. A compilation of related materials and recommended resources can be found in the bibliography. DHHS; Chemicalw.
What’s in an MSDS?
A wide variety of organic and inorganic chemicals are irritants, and consequently, skin and eye contact with all chemicals in the laboratory should be avoided. 3.C Corrosive Substances Corrosive substances cause destruction of living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact and can be solids, liquids, or gases. Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories).Chemical waste may fall under regulations such as COSHH in the United Kingdom, or the Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United wooustoday.com the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration . Overview Bunsen burners present fire hazards. They produce an open flame and burn at a high temperature, and as a result, there is potential for an accident to occur. For the safety and convenience of everyone working in a laboratory, it is important that the following guidelines be observed. In case of a fire, activate the nearest fire alarm pull station, notify all lab personnel, and.
Bunsen burners present fire hazards. They produce an open flame and burn at a high temperature, and as a result, there is potential for an accident to occur. For the safety and convenience of everyone working in a laboratory, it is important that the following guidelines be observed. In case of a fire, activate the nearest fire alarm pull station, notify all lab personnel, and evacuate the building.
Bunsen Burner Safety Guidelines. Overview Bunsen burners present fire hazards. Procedure Place the Bunsen burner away from any overhead shelving, equipment or light fixtures by at least 12 inches.
Remove all papers, notebooks, combustible materials and excess chemicals from the area. Tie-back any long hair, dangling jewelry, or loose clothing. Inspect hose for cracks, holes, pinch points or any defect and ensure that the hose fits securely on the gas valve and the burner.
Replace all hoses found to have a defect before using. Notify others in the laboratory that the burner will be in use. Never use a match to ignite a burner.
Adjust the flame by turning the collar to regulate air flow and produce an appropriate flame for the experiment typically a medium blue flame. Do not leave open flames unattended and never leave the laboratory while the burner is on. Shut off gas when its use is complete. Allow the burner to cool before handling. Ensure that the main gas valve is off before leaving the laboratory. For more information, contact the Environmental and Occupational Safety Office at x