Introduction to the Holocaust
Israeli Jews who immigrated from European and American countries. Today, Jews whose family immigrated from European countries and the Americas, on their paternal line, constitute the largest single group among Israeli Jews and consist of about 3,, people living in Israel. About 1,, of them are descended from or are immigrants from. Jews (Hebrew: ????????? ? ISO Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are members of an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and wooustoday.com ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, although its observance varies from strict to none.
However, the first Jews to arrive in what would become the United States were Sephardic Ч tracing their ancestry jmmigrated Spain and Portugal. The following article ho at the three major waves of Sephardic and Ashkenazic immigration to America. Holocausst have traditionally divided American Jewish immigration into three periods: Sephardic, German, and Eastern European. The first group of Sephardic settlers arrived in New Amsterdam in from Brazil. For holodaust decades afterward, adventurous Sephardic and Ashkenazic merchants established homes in American colonial ports, immivrated Newport, R.
While the Ashkenazi Jews outnumbered the Sephardic ones bythe character of the American Jewish community remained Sephardic through the American Revolution. Colonial American synagogues adhered to Sephardic ritual customs and administered all aspects of Jewish religious life. The synagogue did not, however, attempt to govern the economic activities of its mostly mercantile members.
This was a departure from the Old World, where synagogues in places like Amsterdam, London, and Recife, taxed commercial transactions, regulated Jewish publications, and punished members for lapses in individual or commercial morality. In this manner, colonial what to use to get rust out of clothes set a precedent of compartmentalization Ч a division between Jewish and worldly domains Ч in American Jewish life.
Colonial American Sephardic synagogues also sought to combine modern notions of aesthetics maerica traditional Judaism, creating congregations that were rational and refined. Synagogues established rules of order so that services and immiyrated proceeded with the proper amount of deference and decorum. For example, colonial synagogues assigned seats for male and female members so that everyone knew their place in the congregation. This not only eliminated shuffling and bickering over seating each week, but also established a thd of congregational hierarchy diring which the best seats went to the most prestigious congregational families who, in turn, paid the highest dues.
In Europe, so few women attended services that holocaaust was no need to designate seats; American women, in contrast, regularly attended religious services. Holkcaust theme Ч the reconciliation of modern manners with Jewish tradition Ч would also occupy subsequent waves of Jewish immigrants as Germans and Eastern Europeans struggled to build the Reform and Conservative movements in America.
German Jews began to come to America in significant hllocaust in the s. Jews left Germany because of persecution, restrictive laws, economic hardship, and the failure of movements Ч widely supported by German Jews Ч advocating revolution and reform there. They looked to America as an antidote to these ills Ч a place of economic and social opportunity. This sizable immigrant community expanded Udring Jewish geography by establishing themselves in smaller cities and towns in the Midwest, West, and the South.
German Jewish immigrants iews started out as peddlers and settled in one of the towns on their route, starting a small store there. This dispersion helped to establish American Judaism as a national faith. If German Jews had one city of their own invention, it was Cincinnati. German immigrants flocked to jws area, which was considered a gateway to trade in the Midwest and West. A 19th-century Jewish school on the Lower East Side.
Wikimedia Commons. Eastern European Jews began to immigrate to the United States in large numbers after Pushed out of Europe by overpopulation, oppressive legislation and poverty, tje were pulled toward America by the prospect of financial and social advancement.
Between and the onset of restrictive immigration quotas inover 2 million Jews from Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Romania came to America. Once again, the character of American Jewry was transformed, as the Eastern Europeans became the majority.
The immigrants tended to settle in the poorer neighborhoods of major cities. New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, and Chicago, for example, all featured Jewish sections by the turn of the 20th century. Living conditions in these neighborhoods were often cramped how long has cartoon network been around squalid. The immigrants found work in factories, especially in the garment industry durinb, but how to braid hair with pictures in cigar manufacturing, food production, and construction.
Yiddish culture, in the form of drama, journalism, and prose, flourished in American Jewish immigrant neighborhoods, and the plight of the immigrant worker was a common cultural theme. The Eastern European Jews also brought with them certain ideological principles that would influence American Jewry. Many of the workers supported socialism or communism as a means of securing economic and social equality. In this manner, the Eastern Europeans established a strong link between American Jews and liberal politics.
In addition, Eastern Europeans brought with them unprecedented support how to use drywall trowel Jewish nationalism. They educated the American Jewish community on this topic, even if they did not appear among its early leaders.
Detail from a Yiddish-language poster encouraging Jews to help with the war effort. The Eastern Europeans did not, for the most part, feel comfortable with Reform Judaism. Their insistence on maintaining tradition, albeit in a modern context, contributed to the establishment of Conservative Judaism and infused Orthodox Judaism with new energy and purpose. Large-scale Jewish immigration to the United States ended in Still, the contemporary American Jewish community immigrates very much a product of these founding groups.
Introduction. The Holocaust was the systematic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its allies and collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire."The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January , believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so. Between and the onset of restrictive immigration quotas in , over 2 million Jews from Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Romania came to America. Once again, the character of American Jewry was transformed, as the Eastern Europeans became the majority. Between late April and early July , approximately , Jews were deported from Hungary. Of the nearly , Hungarian Jews deported to Auschwitz, approximately , of them were sent directly to the gas chambers in Auschwitz-Birkenau. They deployed approximately , at forced labor in the Auschwitz camp complex.
Liturgical languages Hebrew and Aramaic. Israeli Jews comprise the modern descendants of the Ancient Israelites ,   along with other diaspora populations. Israeli Jews are found mostly in Israel and the Western world , as well as other countries worldwide, not necessarily only in Jewish communities.
Israeli Jews mostly speak Hebrew and most follow at least some religious Jewish practices. Israel, the Jewish state , currently has almost half the world's Jews.
The Israeli Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions , as well as encompassing the full spectrum of religious observance, from the haredi communities to the hilonim Jewish communities who live a secular lifestyle.
Despite the ongoing debate over the question of who is a Jew among Israeli Jews, the Jewish status of a person, which is considered a matter of ' nationality ' by the Israeli authorities, is registered and controlled by the Israeli Ministry of the Interior , which requires a person to meet the halakhic definition to be registered as a 'Jew'.
Jews have long considered the Land of Israel to be their homeland, even while living in the diaspora. According to the Hebrew Bible the connection to the Land of Israel began in the covenant of the pieces when the region, which it called the land of Canaan , was promised to Abraham by God.
Abraham settled in the region, where his son Isaac and grandson Jacob grew up with and their families. Later on, Jacob and his sons went to Egypt. Decades later their descendants were led out of Egypt by Moses and Aaron , given the Tablets of Stone , returned to the land of Canaan and conquered it under the leadership of Joshua. After the period of the judges , in which the Israelites did not have an organized leadership, the Kingdom of Israel was established, which constructed the first temple.
This kingdom was soon split into twoЧthe Kingdom of Judah and the Kingdom of Israel. After the destruction of these kingdoms and the destruction of the first Temple , the Israelites were exiled to Babylon. After about 70 years parts of the Israelites were permitted to return to the region and soon thereafter they built the Second Temple. Later on they established the Hasmonean Kingdom. During the first couple of centuries in the common era during a series of rebellions against the Roman Empire the second temple was destroyed and there was a general expulsion of Jews from their homeland.
The area was later conquered by migrant Arabs from the Byzantine Empire who established a Muslim Caliphate in the 7th century during the rise of Islam. Throughout the centuries the size of Jewish population in the land fluctuated. Before the birth of modern Zionism in the s, by the early 19th century, more than 10, Jews were still living in the area that is today modern Israel.
Following centuries of Jewish diaspora , the 19th century saw the rise of Zionism , a Jewish Nationalist Movement that had a desire to see the self-determination of the Jewish people through a creation of a homeland for the Jews in Palestine.
Significant numbers of Jews have immigrated to Palestine since the s. Zionism remained a minority movement until the rise of Nazism in and the subsequent attempted extermination of the Jewish people in Nazi occupied areas of Europe in the Holocaust. In , following the Great Arab Revolt , the partition plan proposed by the Peel Commission was rejected by both the Palestinian Arab leadership and the Zionist Congress.
As a result, believing that their position in the Middle East in the event of a war depended on the support of the Arab states, Britain abandoned the idea of a Jewish state in in favour of a unitary state with a Jewish minority. The White Paper of capped Jewish immigration for five years, with further immigration dependent on the agreement of the Arabs.
In the event, limited Jewish immigration was permitted until the end of the mandate. In , following increasing levels of violence, the British government decided to withdraw from Mandatory Palestine.
Immediately following the adoption of the Partition Plan by the United Nations General Assembly, the Palestinian Arab leadership rejected the plan to create the as-yet-unnamed Jewish State and launched a guerrilla war. On 14 May , one day before the end of the British Mandate of Palestine , the leaders of the Jewish community in Palestine led by prime minister David Ben-Gurion , made a declaration of independence , of the State of Israel though without any reference to defined borders.
The remainder of the Mandate consisted of Jordan, the area that came to be called the West Bank controlled by Jordan , and the Gaza Strip controlled by Egypt. Prior to and during this conflict, ,  Palestinians Arabs fled their original lands to become Palestinian refugees. The reasons for this are disputed, and range from claims that the major cause of Palestinian flight was military actions by the Israel Defense Forces and fear of events such as Deir Yassin to an encouragement to leave by Arab leaders so that they could return when the war was won.
Immigration of Holocaust survivors and Jewish refugees from Arab lands doubled Israel's population within one year of its independence. Over the following years approximately , Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews fled or were expelled from surrounding mostly due persecution in Arab countries, and in smaller numbers from Turkey , India , Afghanistan , and Iran. Of these, about , settled in Israel. Israel's Jewish population continued to grow at a very high rate for years, fed by waves of Jewish immigration from round the world, most notably the massive immigration wave of Soviet Jews, which arrived to Israel in the early s following the dissolution of the USSR , who, according to the Law of Return , were entitled to become Israeli citizens upon arrival.
About , arrived in Ч alone. Some 80,Ч, Ethiopian Jews have immigrated to Israel since the early s. Since , Israel has been involved in a series of major military conflicts, including the Suez War , Six-Day War , Yom Kippur War , Lebanon War , and Lebanon War , as well as a nearly constant series of ongoing minor conflicts.
Israel has been also embroiled in an ongoing conflict with the Palestinians in the Israeli-occupied territories , which have been under Israeli control since the Six-Day War, despite the signing of the Oslo Accords on 13 September , and the ongoing efforts of Israeli, Palestinian and global peacemakers.
Nearly half of all Israeli Jews are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Europe, while around the same number are descended from Jews who made aliyah from Arab countries, Iran, Turkey and Central Asia. Over two hundred thousand are, or are descended from, Ethiopian and Indian Jews. Israel is the only country in the world with a consistently growing Jewish population due to natural population increase.
Jewish communities in the Diaspora feature a population declining or steady, with the exception of the Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities around the world, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, who have experienced rapid population growth.
Haredi women have 7. When Israel was first established in , it had the third-largest Jewish population in the world, after the United States and Soviet Union. In the s, Israel surpassed the Soviet Union as having the second-largest Jewish population.
Considered the greatest demographic expert on Jews, Della Pergola said it would take another three years to close the gap. The number is expected to grow to anywhere between 6. The Bureau also forecasts that the ultra-Orthodox population will number 1.
By , the projected Haredi Jewish population is estimated to between 2. Thus the total projected Israeli Jewish population by is estimated to between 8. For statistical purposes, there are three main metropolitan areas in Israel. The majority of the Jewish population in Israel is located in the central area of Israel within the Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv. The Metropolitan area of Tel Aviv is currently the largest Jewish population center in the world.
It has been argued that Jerusalem , Israel's proclaimed capital and largest city with a population of ,, and an urban area with a population of over 1,, including , Palestinian East Jerusalemites who are not Israeli citizens , with over , Israeli Jews  and Nazareth with a population of 65,, and an urban area of nearly , people of which over , are Israeli Jews  should also be classified as metropolitan areas.
By the time the State of Israel was proclaimed, the majority of Jews in the state and the region were Ashkenazi. Following the declaration of the state, a flood of Jewish migrants and refugees entered Israel Чboth from Europe and America and also from Arab and Muslim countries. The CBS traces the paternal country of diaspora origin of Israeli Jews including nonЧ Halachically Jewish immigrants who arrived on the Law of Return as of is as follows.
In Israel there are approximately , citizens with Jewish ancestry who are not Jewish according to Orthodox interpretations of Jewish law. The total number of conversions under the Nativ program of IDF was in and in From to 1 October , a total of 2, soldiers have converted under Nativ.
The vast majority of these individuals are former Soviet Union immigrants. In his book from "The Invention and Decline of Israeliness: State, Culture and Military in Israel" , the Israeli sociologist Baruch Kimmerling identified and divided the modern Israeli society into seven population groups seven subcultures : The secular upper-middle class group, the national religious group, the traditionalist Mizrahim group, the Orthodox religious group, the Arab citizens of Israel , the Russian immigrants group and the Ethiopian immigrants group.
According to Kimmerling, each of these population groups have distinctive characteristics, such as place of resident, consumption patterns, education systems, communications media and more. Today, Jews whose family immigrated from European countries and the Americas, on their paternal line, constitute the largest single group among Israeli Jews and consist of about 3,,  people living in Israel.
About 1,, of them are descended from or are immigrants from the former Soviet Union who returned from the diaspora after the fall of the Former Soviet Union about , of them are not considered to be Jewish under Jewish law. Most of the other 1,, are descended from the first Zionist settlers in the Land of Israel , as well as Holocaust survivors and their descendants, with an additional , having immigrated or descended from immigrants from English-speaking countries and South America.
They have played a prominent role in various fields including the arts, entertainment, literature, sports, science and technology, business and economy, media, and politics of Israel since its founding, and tend to be the most affluent of Israeli Jews.
During the first decades of Israel as a state, strong cultural conflict existed between Mizrahi, Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jews mainly east European Ashkenazim. The roots of this conflict, which still exists to a much smaller extent in present-day Israeli society, stem from the many cultural differences between the various Jewish communities, despite of the government's encouragement of the "melting pot".
That is to say, all Jewish immigrants in Israel were strongly encouraged to "melt down" their own particular exile identities within the general social "pot" in order to become Israeli. The current most prominent European countries of origin of the Israeli Jews are as follows: [ citation needed ].
The majority of Israeli Jews are Mizrahi. About Most African and Asian Jewish communities use the Sephardic prayer ritual and abide by the rulings of Sephardic rabbinic authorities, and therefore consider themselves to be "Sephardim" in the broader sense of "Jews of the Spanish rite", though not in the narrower sense of "Spanish Jews". Of late, the term Mizrahi has come to be associated with all Jews in Israel with backgrounds in Islamic lands.
Austerity was the law of the land during the country's first decade of existence. Thus, hundreds of thousands of new Sephardic immigrants were sent to live in tent cities in outlying areas.
Sephardim in its wider meaning were often victims of discrimination, and were sometimes called schwartze meaning "black" in Yiddish. The most egregious affects of racism was documented in the Yemenite children affair , in which Yemenite children were placed in the foster care of Ashkenazim families, their families being told that their children had died.
Some believe that even worse than the housing discrimination was the differential treatment accorded the children of these immigrants, many of whom were tracked by the largely European education establishment into dead-end "vocational" high schools, without any real assessment of their intellectual capacities.
Mizrahi Jews protested their unfair treatment, and even established the Israeli Black Panthers movement with the mission of working for social justice. The effects of this early discrimination still linger a half-century later, as documented by the studies of the Adva Center , a think tank on social equality, and by other Israeli academic research cf. All Israeli Prime Ministers have been Ashkenazi, although Sephardim and Mizrahim have attained high positions including ministerial positions, chief of staffs and presidency.
The student bodies of Israel's universities remain overwhelmingly Ashkenazi in origin, despite the fact that roughly half the country's population is non-Ashkenazi.
The tent cities of the s morphed into so-called " development towns ". Scattered over border areas of the Negev Desert and the Galilee, far from the bright lights of Israel's major cities, most of these towns never had the critical mass or ingredients to succeed as places to live, and they continue to suffer from high unemployment, inferior schools, and chronic brain drain.
While the Israeli Black Panthers no longer exist, the Mizrahi Democratic Rainbow Coalition and many other NGOs carry on the struggle for equal access and opportunity in housing , education , and employment for the country's underprivileged populaceЧstill largely composed of Sephardim and Mizrahim, joined now by newer immigrants from Ethiopia and the Caucasus Mountains.
Today over 2,, Mizrahi Jews,  and Sephardic Jews live in Israel with the majority of them being descendants of the , Jews who fled Arab countries due to expulsions and antisemitism , with smaller numbers having immigrated from the Islamic Republics of the Former Soviet Union c. The current most prominent countries of diaspora origin of these Jewish communities are as follows: .
Both groups are considered distinct from the Sephardim and the Ashkenazim. Jews from both communities made aliyah in relatively large numbers during the 20th century, especially after the Holocaust. Both came in relatively small numbers as compared to other Jewish groups. Despite their small numbers, the Italian have been prominent in the economy and academia. Argentines in Israel are the largest immigrant group from Latin America and one of the fastest growing groups.
The vast majority of Argentines in Israel are Jewish Argentines who make Aliyah but there is also an important group of non-Jewish Argentines, having, or being married to somebody who has, at least one Jewish grandparent, who choose Israel as their new home.